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雨花石图案分类

《素园石谱》作者是林有麟。《素园石谱》作者是林有麟。

34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,

194, 201, 174, 117, 99, 137, 6, 12, 153, 213, 206, 93, 249, 33, 28, 120, 95, 37, 4, 55, 237, 102, 196,

  雨花石图案是一种“天趣”,有其不可知性,没有定式,统计不出它究竟有多少种类,但从收藏实践中也可以大致分出一些眉目。计约40种:

169, 68, 61, 10, 46, 121, 230, 80, 89, 0, 24, 167, 5, 132, 53, 81, 231, 141, 251, 241, 219, 173, 20, 38,


182, 229, 67, 183, 188, 222, 107, 248, 244, 156, 88, 246, 240, 13, 211, 49, 144, 40, 21, 130, 179, 202,

    1.缠丝状:纹如缠丝,萦绕石面,有的纹色均匀排列,也有的各色相间。

182, 229, 67, 183, 188, 222, 107, 248, 244, 156, 88, 246, 240, 13, 211, 49, 144, 40, 21, 130, 179, 202,


158, 227, 139, 111, 91, 23, 253, 147, 170, 226, 97, 39, 155, 79, 247, 215, 233, 218, 118, 175, 32, 135,

    2.水波状:纹为波浪,舒畅自然,富有节奏感、流动感。 239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,


29, 160, 224, 198, 41, 42, 65, 114, 136, 176, 22, 122, 209, 129, 100, 112, 82, 43, 35, 83, 189, 255, 78,

    3.平行水纹状:在石之半截或两端出现平行水纹,俗称转子石,此类易出风景巧石,水纹横可成池水,竖可成瀑布。 34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,


181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,

    4.丘壑状:如丘陵起伏,山势遥远,或峰峦重叠,远近分明。 18, 69, 168, 242, 86, 245, 45, 25, 236, 180, 77, 157, 73, 187, 214, 232, 64, 131, 9, 146, 58, 47, 191,


140, 185, 177, 8, 90, 96, 190, 184, 113, 162, 217, 84

    5.烟雨状:水雾漾漾,如烟如雨,间有绿斑白纹,分外引人入胜。 239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,


181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,

    6.星斗状:星星点点,闪闪烁烁,如夜空星斗,布满天宇。

140, 185, 177, 8, 90, 96, 190, 184, 113, 162, 217, 84


123, 150, 208, 115, 75, 134, 36, 199, 125, 210, 109, 17, 71, 152, 104, 178, 44, 165, 87, 235, 1, 220,

    7.荇藻状:白色或灰白色透明体内,丝丝缕缕,或青或绿或蓝,如荇藻浮动。 181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,


18, 69, 168, 242, 86, 245, 45, 25, 236, 180, 77, 157, 73, 187, 214, 232, 64, 131, 9, 146, 58, 47, 191,

    8.气泡状:内含粒状气体,若散盘珠矶。 123, 150, 208, 115, 75, 134, 36, 199, 125, 210, 109, 17, 71, 152, 104, 178, 44, 165, 87, 235, 1, 220,


239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,

    9.叶脉状:如树叶之脉络,线条流畅,自然成趣。 108, 106, 148, 56, 15, 250, 62, 151, 26, 243, 57, 172, 66, 197, 223, 228, 63, 19, 70, 126, 164, 212,


169, 68, 61, 10, 46, 121, 230, 80, 89, 0, 24, 167, 5, 132, 53, 81, 231, 141, 251, 241, 219, 173, 20, 38,

    10.油层状:无数透明小圆珠,如油珠浮于水面。 34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,


169, 68, 61, 10, 46, 121, 230, 80, 89, 0, 24, 167, 5, 132, 53, 81, 231, 141, 251, 241, 219, 173, 20, 38,

    11.同心圆状:无数同心圆,层层叠叠围绕于一个核心,故名。 158, 227, 139, 111, 91, 23, 253, 147, 170, 226, 97, 39, 155, 79, 247, 215, 233, 218, 118, 175, 32, 135,


108, 106, 148, 56, 15, 250, 62, 151, 26, 243, 57, 172, 66, 197, 223, 228, 63, 19, 70, 126, 164, 212,

    12.丝纹折射线状:丝纹石极细者(一厘米,三线之上),可产生绢丝射线,如水与光在石中晃动,亦称“晃石”。 29, 160, 224, 198, 41, 42, 65, 114, 136, 176, 22, 122, 209, 129, 100, 112, 82, 43, 35, 83, 189, 255, 78,


239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,

    13.游丝状:透明体中,纹如游丝寓于石内,线条飘忽若有动感,实乃水晶中“发晶”之类。 169, 68, 61, 10, 46, 121, 230, 80, 89, 0, 24, 167, 5, 132, 53, 81, 231, 141, 251, 241, 219, 173, 20, 38,


18, 69, 168, 242, 86, 245, 45, 25, 236, 180, 77, 157, 73, 187, 214, 232, 64, 131, 9, 146, 58, 47, 191,

    14.黄鬃状:透明体内,有黄色线条纹,纹粗如鬃,实为水晶中之“鬃晶”。

158, 227, 139, 111, 91, 23, 253, 147, 170, 226, 97, 39, 155, 79, 247, 215, 233, 218, 118, 175, 32, 135,


194, 201, 174, 117, 99, 137, 6, 12, 153, 213, 206, 93, 249, 33, 28, 120, 95, 37, 4, 55, 237, 102, 196,

    15.鱼子状:石上布满黑点或红、白色点,状如鱼子。

34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,


181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,

    16.蜂窝状:一格一格整齐排列,状如蜂窝,有黑色、灰白色、黄色,也有间杂红色,纯红色者稀少,较珍贵。此类一般均为珊瑚化石。

181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,


29, 160, 224, 198, 41, 42, 65, 114, 136, 176, 22, 122, 209, 129, 100, 112, 82, 43, 35, 83, 189, 255, 78,

    17.方格蜂窝状:如鱼子状一样密集许多小点,但点子呈方形,此类多为蜓科化石。

181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,


182, 229, 67, 183, 188, 222, 107, 248, 244, 156, 88, 246, 240, 13, 211, 49, 144, 40, 21, 130, 179, 202,

    18.直条木排状:横竖直条,横看似木排,多红黄石,这一般是珊瑚化石不同方向的断面,但观赏效果却别具一格。 181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,


123, 150, 208, 115, 75, 134, 36, 199, 125, 210, 109, 17, 71, 152, 104, 178, 44, 165, 87, 235, 1, 220,

    19.单眼状:一圈一圈的单线圈,谓之单眼,素色单眼可以作景中的月亮,红色可以作景中的太阳。 239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,


169, 68, 61, 10, 46, 121, 230, 80, 89, 0, 24, 167, 5, 132, 53, 81, 231, 141, 251, 241, 219, 173, 20, 38,

    20.复眼、重眼状:复眼是复线圈,重眼是多线圈,复眼、重眼多有复色,极具变幻,为配景之主纹。

158, 227, 139, 111, 91, 23, 253, 147, 170, 226, 97, 39, 155, 79, 247, 215, 233, 218, 118, 175, 32, 135,


181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,

    21.支架状:线条相互支撑,坚劲富有力度,煞像设计师漫不经心描绘的建筑图纸。

34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,


123, 150, 208, 115, 75, 134, 36, 199, 125, 210, 109, 17, 71, 152, 104, 178, 44, 165, 87, 235, 1, 220,

    22.虹彩水晶状:水晶卵石斜视产生“虹彩效应”,五光十色,撩人眼乱。这是水晶体的次生裂隙中填充了含有不同元素的液体或气体,较为珍贵。 158, 227, 139, 111, 91, 23, 253, 147, 170, 226, 97, 39, 155, 79, 247, 215, 233, 218, 118, 175, 32, 135,


34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,

    23.闪光水晶状:指在水晶卵石中含云母片和赤铁矿,石中就闪烁着这些包裹体的亮光。

140, 185, 177, 8, 90, 96, 190, 184, 113, 162, 217, 84


194, 201, 174, 117, 99, 137, 6, 12, 153, 213, 206, 93, 249, 33, 28, 120, 95, 37, 4, 55, 237, 102, 196,

    24.多色玉髓状:外观呈钟乳、葡萄状,质如蜡状、凝脂状,多白色、灰色,还有红、绿、黄诸色。

239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,


181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,

    25.柏枝玛瑙状:石之晶体中有红色柏枝状花纹。有浮于石面者,有寓于石内者,以后者为佳。 140, 185, 177, 8, 90, 96, 190, 184, 113, 162, 217, 84


158, 227, 139, 111, 91, 23, 253, 147, 170, 226, 97, 39, 155, 79, 247, 215, 233, 218, 118, 175, 32, 135,

    26.城砦(zhai同塞)玛淄状:缟状、带状玛瑙中,有棱角状构造,形如隐约可见的城廓。此种雨花石能出现长城关隘的景境,是藏家寻求的珍品。 29, 160, 224, 198, 41, 42, 65, 114, 136, 176, 22, 122, 209, 129, 100, 112, 82, 43, 35, 83, 189, 255, 78,


194, 201, 174, 117, 99, 137, 6, 12, 153, 213, 206, 93, 249, 33, 28, 120, 95, 37, 4, 55, 237, 102, 196,

    27.竹叶玛瑙状:纹如竹叶,多黑色、黄色、红色,未见绿色,一般有叶无枝干,干、枝、叶俱全在为珍品。 34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,


108, 106, 148, 56, 15, 250, 62, 151, 26, 243, 57, 172, 66, 197, 223, 228, 63, 19, 70, 126, 164, 212,

    28.锦犀玛瑙状:五色交错、璀璨缤纷,犹如彩虹闪烁光彩,此类透者为佳。 140, 185, 177, 8, 90, 96, 190, 184, 113, 162, 217, 84


123, 150, 208, 115, 75, 134, 36, 199, 125, 210, 109, 17, 71, 152, 104, 178, 44, 165, 87, 235, 1, 220,

    29.单色蛋白状:蛋白石多单色,无纹。有黑、青、灰、紫、绿、红、黄诸色,有以白色为底色者,有无底色者,均称“单色蛋白”。

108, 106, 148, 56, 15, 250, 62, 151, 26, 243, 57, 172, 66, 197, 223, 228, 63, 19, 70, 126, 164, 212,


182, 229, 67, 183, 188, 222, 107, 248, 244, 156, 88, 246, 240, 13, 211, 49, 144, 40, 21, 130, 179, 202,

    30.复色蛋白状:一般两色相间,佳者石形端圆,石心一色,石边一色,两者之间游移过渡,无明确的分界线,润感极强。

239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,


239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,

    31.有纹蛋白状:蛋白石一般无纹理,也有个别有简洁的花纹,多红色,纹理生在蛋白石质上,色感好,反差强,若能成像成景,应视为珍品。 140, 185, 177, 8, 90, 96, 190, 184, 113, 162, 217, 84


181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,

    32.杭菊花状:石上分布三五朵花,极似杭菊,经对照古生物图谱,也是珊珊化石之属。

158, 227, 139, 111, 91, 23, 253, 147, 170, 226, 97, 39, 155, 79, 247, 215, 233, 218, 118, 175, 32, 135,


34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,

    33.菊花状:石上似开一朵红菊,两面纹理近似,一面一菊,我藏有此石,观赏效果较好。 169, 68, 61, 10, 46, 121, 230, 80, 89, 0, 24, 167, 5, 132, 53, 81, 231, 141, 251, 241, 219, 173, 20, 38,


29, 160, 224, 198, 41, 42, 65, 114, 136, 176, 22, 122, 209, 129, 100, 112, 82, 43, 35, 83, 189, 255, 78,

    34.红梅状:枝干横斜,梅蕊满校,红艳夺目,以层次分明,形端色妍者为上。 239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,


239, 52, 252, 116, 60, 193, 207, 101, 142, 51, 74, 76, 154, 145, 105, 30, 31, 27, 204, 54, 7, 110, 166,

    35.冰梅状:绿底白纹,如寒梅满山,如闻馨香,景境摄人。 108, 106, 148, 56, 15, 250, 62, 151, 26, 243, 57, 172, 66, 197, 223, 228, 63, 19, 70, 126, 164, 212,


182, 229, 67, 183, 188, 222, 107, 248, 244, 156, 88, 246, 240, 13, 211, 49, 144, 40, 21, 130, 179, 202,

    36.蜡梅状:金蕊满枝,依篱傍石,石白花黄,素雅怡人。 18, 69, 168, 242, 86, 245, 45, 25, 236, 180, 77, 157, 73, 187, 214, 232, 64, 131, 9, 146, 58, 47, 191,


34, 216, 143, 98, 133, 94, 203, 254, 92, 2, 16, 124, 48, 11, 3, 163, 221, 195, 192, 59, 119, 161, 72,

    37.芰荷状:亭亭荷柄,荷叶如蓬,色多赭黄,多以“残荷听雨”名之,未见有绿荷者。 181, 149, 85, 171, 128, 103, 238, 159, 225, 234, 14, 200, 138, 205, 127, 50, 186,


123, 150, 208, 115, 75, 134, 36, 199, 125, 210, 109, 17, 71, 152, 104, 178, 44, 165, 87, 235, 1, 220,

    38.松香状:此为雨花石之一大类别,色质栗黄夹灰青,纹理间黄、黑、赭、白诸色交杂,俗称“松香石”,纹彩纷繁,引人迷幻其间。 194, 201, 174, 117, 99, 137, 6, 12, 153, 213, 206, 93, 249, 33, 28, 120, 95, 37, 4, 55, 237, 102, 196,


18, 69, 168, 242, 86, 245, 45, 25, 236, 180, 77, 157, 73, 187, 214, 232, 64, 131, 9, 146, 58, 47, 191,

    39.碧玉状:色如绿色翡翠,白色或灰色底,布满点状或块状绿纹,亦称“石英质翡翠”。 108, 106, 148, 56, 15, 250, 62, 151, 26, 243, 57, 172, 66, 197, 223, 228, 63, 19, 70, 126, 164, 212,


123, 150, 208, 115, 75, 134, 36, 199, 125, 210, 109, 17, 71, 152, 104, 178, 44, 165, 87, 235, 1, 220,

    40.砀石状:有色彩、纹理而不透明列于玛瑙、水晶范畴之外的彩石,谓之砀石。层次多,色彩好并成像成景者,亦有珍品出现。

18, 69, 168, 242, 86, 245, 45, 25, 236, 180, 77, 157, 73, 187, 214, 232, 64, 131, 9, 146, 58, 47, 191,

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参考资料

[1].  南京出版社 1995 池澄 雨花石谱   

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